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Definition: Job Coaching

Job coaching refers to the training of an employee by an approved specialist, who uses structured intervention techniques to help the employee learn to perform job tasks to the employer's specifications and to learn the interpersonal skills necessary to be accepted as a worker at the job site and in related community contacts. In addition to job-site training, job coaching includes related assessment, job development, counseling, advocacy, travel training and other services needed to maintain the employment.

Benefits of Job Coaching

Through job coaching, a qualified individual (job coach) works directly with an individual with a disability in a training or placement site to help him/her learn the specific requirements of the job; learn work-related activities and requirements such as time and attendance rules; and learn appropriate work-related (including social) behaviors when dealing with supervisors and co-workers.

By placing a consumer directly in a job with the hands-on assistance of a job coach, areas of vocational and personal strength and weakness become apparent early in the process and are based on actual, not projected or simulated experience; the consumer is able to receive immediate feedback, assistance, and follow-up from the support person; and an employer is able to take on and observe the progress of the consumer without a full commitment of personnel resources in the beginning of the process.


A family member (as defined on page 8.09.01) may not be used as a job coach.

Job Coaching as a Support Service

While job coaching is often associated with supported employment, it can be provided as a vocational rehabilitation service to individuals who are do not have a goal of supported employment, e.g. for an individual who requires some coaching for a particular job but does not require coaching throughout their entire work life. For individuals who do require job coaching for their entire worklife should be considered for supported employment services.

When a counselor can document specific services that the job coach will render that will be different from those by the training provider, job coaching may also be provided in conjunction with:

1. on-the-job training (OJT)

2. work experience/transitional employment

3. paid work study

Job coaching in support of OJT, paid work study, or work experience/transitional employment may not continue beyond a total of 3 months without approval of the district manager.

Job Coaching During On-the-Job Training

In order to justify the provision of job coaching in support of On-the-Job Training (OJT), a clear distinction must be made between:

1. training the employer will provide (usually specific job skill training normally provided to any new employee) and

2. the activities of the job coach such as:

a. advocacy

b. task analysis

c. developing necessary job accommodations

d. teaching appropriate work behaviors and interpersonal skills, or

e. reinforcing travel training

When job coaching is provided in support of OJT, this factor should be considered in negotiating employer contribution. It is anticipated that provision of job coaching services will result in a shorter period of OJT or a greater employer contribution early in the training period.


Job coaching may not be provided in conjunction with a vocational assessment or vocational training purchased through a community rehabilitation program.

Job Coaching During Transitional Employment

Transitional employment refers to the provision of job coaching services to an individual where there exists the strong likelihood that the individual can achieve independent functioning on a job, within the time-frame allowed by NYSCB's guidelines for job coach services. While NYSCB provides job coaching services, the employer is responsible for employee wages and benefits.

The goal of transitional employment is to shift the support the consumer needs from the job coach to regular on-site supervisory staff. Long term follow-along support of indefinite duration is not anticipated for these individuals.

Job Coach Rate

Job coach services should be authorized to community rehabilitation programs in accordance with the following rates and guidelines:

A job coach provided by a NYSCB approved community rehabilitation program will be paid:

1. $15/hour to work with an individual who is blind

2. $20/hour to work with an individual who is deaf and blind and unable to understand most speech

A job coach approved as a private vendor will be paid:

1. $14/hour to work with an individual who is blind

2. $19/hour to work with an individual who is deaf and blind and unable to understand most speech.

A job coach provided by a VESID approved facility will be paid according to VESID established rates.

Approved Providers

An updated list of approved agencies and vendors can be obtained from local VESID, OMRDD and OMH offices.

Duration of Job Coaching Services

Within the guidelines, a counselor may authorize as many hours of job coaching, over the life of the case, as required to meet the consumer's training needs. A maximum of 345 hours total can be used for job development, situational assessment and on-site training. However, job coaching in support of OJT, paid work study, or work experience/transitional employment may not continue beyond a total of 3 months without approval of the district manager.

Exception, Students

When it is determined that a student would benefit from job coaching in support of a school work study program, intensive on-site training may be provided up to a maximum of 150 hours. These hours will not be applied to the 345 hour maximum over the life of the case.

Waiver, Durational Limit

If documented as necessary, durational limits may be exceeded under the following guidelines:

1. up to 100 additional hours may be authorized with district manager approval;

2. the regional coordinator must approve any authorizations above 100 additional hours;

3. in either instance, Central Office should be provided with a copy of the waiver.


When a job coach is used for more than one individual, the job coach cannot bill for more hours than the actual number of hours worked. Counselors should identify other individuals in the work group and coordinate with their counselors to ensure that the coach is only paid for the total number of hours he or she works.

Each consumer's voucher should be billed proportionately to the number of hours of individual job coaching directly received by the consumer. If this cannot be determined, billing should be based upon the average number of hours provided to each consumer (e.g. a consumer in a work crew of six persons can be expected to receive 1/6 of the total hours of coaching provided to the crew).


Authorizations for job coaching should be issued directly to the community rehabilitation program using its community rehabilitation program code. Community rehabilitation program rates may vary depending upon which job coach is used. If known, the name of the job coach should be entered on the authorization.

When using private vendors, authorizations are issued directly to the individual job coach.

NYSCB Counselor Responsibility

It is the NYSCB counselor's responsibility to:

1. determine where a job coach may be effective in providing training or in helping an individual to achieve competitive employment.

2. review each situation to obtain details of the employment opportunity and determine the appropriateness of the job and the use of the job coach.

Consideration should include:

a. type of work

b. location

c. hours

d. potential intensity of support needed

e. employer's willingness to have a job coach on-site

f. consumer's willingness to have a job coach

g. employer's willingness to accept increased supervisory role as the job coach fades and

h. the potential the experience offers for direct placement or transferable skills

3. determine if a job coach is available

4. meet with the job coach to review the situation, and to establish times for the counselor and coach to:

a. meet with the consumer

b. visit the job site and

c. talk to an employer representative

5. monitor the consumer's progress through scheduled reports from the job coach and regular contact with the job coach, the consumer and the employer.

Job Coach Activities

The job coach is responsible for the following activities:

1. Job Development

a. contacts employers in the geographic area

b. develops a job that is compatible with the consumer's interests and abilities

c. determines the employer's receptivity to the presence of a job coach at the work site

d. conducts task analysis and job analysis

2. Situational Assessment

a. conducts assessments in a community-based rather than facility-based setting

b. assesses the consumer's ability to function in both the work environment and community of residence,

3. Intensive On-Site Training

When a compatible job match is made between the employer and the consumer, the job coach performs several activities before the consumer actually starts at the job site:

a. learns about specific job requirements and duties by spending as much time as necessary at the job site

b. prepares detailed job and task analyses, for the counselor, to serve as the basis for developing training strategies

Once the consumer begins the job, the job coach:

c. uses structured training techniques for teaching:

1. job performance skills such as sequence, quality and quantity

2. job related skills such as grooming, socializing with co-workers, accepting supervision or managing one's paycheck

d. ensures success of the placement by providing advocacy:

1. at the work site

2. in the consumer's residence or community, and

3. with external provider agencies (such as the Social Security Administration or Department of Social Services)

e. assists in travel training by reinforcing travel skills as taught by an O&M instructor

f. continually evaluates and monitors the consumer's performance and progress

g. begins fading as the consumer becomes more proficient and requires less job coach intervention

Monitoring, Reporting

The NYSCB counselor is responsible for monitoring the provision and adequacy of the job coaching services. To accomplish this, the counselor should have direct contact with the consumer, job coach and employer.

To assist in the monitoring activity, the job coach is required to submit a report to the counselor (see recommended report format on p. 8.38.09, VESID approved report can also be used). The report should include the following information:

1. Job Development

a. a summary of employer contacts - noted by visit, phone or letter

b. reaction and comments of employers contacted

c. for the specific job developed for a consumer - a full description of employer name, location, type of business, specific job description, hours, wages and whether the site is accessible by public transportation.

d. initial recommendations of job coach (e.g. need for travel training, length of job coaching services), if available

2. Situational Assessment

a. consumer's potential to benefit from job coaching

b. type and duration of training needed

c. suggestions for vocational goals

d. anticipated level of intervention needed

e. need for on-going support services to maintain employment

f. job and task analyses, if known at this point

3. Intensive On-Site Training

a. task analysis if not already received

b. narrative report which outlines:

1. dates and hours of service

2. instruction provided

3. summary of consumer progress, including identification of any problem areas

4. recommendation for ongoing instruction, including an estimate of anticipated degree of continued intervention and hours of service required.

Post Employment Services

Job coaching services as described above may be conducted on a time-limited basis (up to 50 hours) under Post Employment Services.

Comparable Benefits

Where appropriate, maximum use should be made of available comparable benefits for the provision of job coaching.